2021-2022 Pierce College Catalog 
    
    Dec 05, 2021  
2021-2022 Pierce College Catalog
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BIOL& 242 Human A & P 2 (6 credits)



Distribution Area Fulfilled Natural Sciences with Lab; General Transfer Elective
Prerequisite Completion of BIOL& 241  with 2.0 or better or instructor permission.

Course Description
Second course of a two-quarter study of body structure and related physiology on cellular through system levels. Lecture includes an in-depth study of body organization, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic and immunology, respiratory, digestive and metabolism, excretory, and reproductive systems. Lab includes endocrine histology, cardiovascular system of humans, hematology, urinalysis, immunology, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems using microscopic examination, models and/or representative mammalian specimens.

Student Outcomes
LECTURE OUTCOMES
1. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the endocrine system contrasting the functional roles of their hormones in communication, regulation and integration
2. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the cardiovascular system and explain their functional roles in transport, hemodynamics and blood pressure
3. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the lymphatic system and explain their functional roles in fluid dynamics and immunity
4. Describe the physiology of innate and adaptive immunity
5. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the respiratory system and explain their functional roles in pulmonary ventilation (breathing) and in the processes of external and internal respiration
6. Describe mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues as well as gas transport in the blood
7. Identify and describe variables impacting the transport of oxygen on hemoglobin
8. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the digestive system and explain their functional roles in mechanical and chemical digestive processes, absorption, transportation, elimination, regulation of the digestive processes and nutrition
9. Summarize reactants and products (especially energy yield) of cellular respiration and indicate how carbohydrates, amino acids and triglycerides are biochemically interconvertible and used for energy
10. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the urinary system and explain their functional roles in urine formation and blood pressure management
11. Describe the homeostatic mechanisms that control fluid/electrolyte and acid/base balance
12. Explain the regulation of volume, composition and distribution of body fluids
13. Explain the balancing of pH of body fluids
14. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the male and female reproductive systems and explain their functional roles in reproduction. Discuss gamete production, including distinctions between mitosis and meiosis and principles of inheritance. Describe hormonal controls of ovarian cycling
15. Describe major events of fetal development and the impact of pregnancy on maternal physiology

LABORATORY OUTCOMES
1. Identify the gross and microscopic anatomy of the major endocrine organs
2. Identify the components of whole blood via microscopic examination, describe the functional roles of the formed elements of blood, and discuss blood values and counts, specifically: hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC count, WBC differential count, platelet count and interpretation of abnormal values
3. Identify the ABO blood type and Rh factor from an agglutination test
4. Identify superficial and deep structures of the heart, including the conduction system, on various heart models, diagrams, and by mammal heart dissection
5. Describe and demonstrate patterns of blood circulation throughout the human body, including systemic, pulmonary, cerebral, coronary, hepatic portal, and fetal circulations on models, diagrams and/or dissected mammal specimens
6. Measure blood pressure and discuss its functional interrelationships with pulse pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, peripheral resistance and hemodynamics
7. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the lymphatic system. Discuss the pattern of lymph circulation and both its encapsulated and non-encapsulated structures
8. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system and related structures
9. Measure pulmonary air volumes and capacities using a spirometer
10. Assess problems dealing with metabolic/respiratory acidosis and alkalosis
11. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the GI tract and the accessory organs of digestion
12. Discuss and model the catabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
13. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the urinary system
14. Assess results of a urinalysis, including gross examination, specific gravity, biochemical analysis, and microscopic examination
15. Identify and describe gross and microscopic anatomy of the male and female reproductive tracts and external genitalia, including reproductive cell development (meiosis, gametogenesis, folliculogenesis)



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