2023-2024 Pierce College Catalog 
    Jul 20, 2024  
2023-2024 Pierce College Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIOL& 241 Human A & P 1 (6 credits)

Distribution Area Fulfilled Natural Sciences with Lab; General Transfer Elective
Prerequisite BIOL& 160  with a grade of 2.0 or better and CHEM& 100  with a 2.0 or better; or KINS 155  with a 2.0 or better; or EMS 160  with a 2.0 or better; or instructor permission

Course Description
First course of a two-quarter study of body structure and related physiology of cellular through system levels. Lecture includes an in-depth study of a) cells and tissues and b) integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and sensory systems. Lab includes in-depth study of a) cell physiology, b) microscopy, c) histology, d) human bone and bone marking identification, e) human musculature, and f) nervous and sensory function tests using slides, models and/or representative mammalian specimens.

Course Content
A. Interrelationships between form and function at both the gross and microscopic levels of organization
B. Basic anatomical and directional terminology
C. Basic chemistry principles
D. Fundamental concepts and principles of cell biology and histology
E. Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous systems, and special senses
F. Homeostasis and systemic integration
G. Laboratory study of cell physiology, microscopy, histology, human bone and bone-marking identification, human musculature and nervous systems, sensory function tests and anatomy/physiology of the eye and ear

Student Outcomes

1. Distinguish between the terms “anatomy” and “physiology”.

2. Use correct and appropriate anatomical and directional terminology and descriptions.

3. Explain the basic concept of homeostasis and how homeostatic mechanisms (positive and negative feedback control) apply to body systems.

4. Describe the formation of ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds and how they relate to human physiology.

5. Explain the role of catabolic and anabolic reactions involving carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and ATP in the human body.

6. Identify major events in the life cycle of a cell.

7. Identify major cellular structures and explain their functions.

8. Identify and describe the four basic tissues of the body, and subtypes of each, and explain their functions.

9. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the integumentary system and explain their functions and the functions of the system.

10. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the skeletal system and explain their functional roles in: osteogenesis, repair body support, protection and movement mineral and energy storage and hematopoiesis.

11. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the muscular system, and explain their functional roles in body movement, maintenance of posture and heat production.

12. Explain in detail the microscopic and molecular anatomy of skeletal muscle and the physiology of its contraction. Compare the anatomy and physiology of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle.

13. Distinguish between energy utilization pathways in fast, slow, and intermediate fiber types.

14. Use appropriate nomenclature in describing the ultrastructure and physiology of skeletal muscle.

15. Distinguish between the two main structural divisions of the nervous system (CNS and PNS) and its two main functional divisions (SNS and ANS). Identify functions of designated regions of the brain.

16. Identify and describe the major components of the autonomic nervous system with emphasis on structural and physiological differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; trace a typical reflex arc.

17. Describe neurophysiology, including the mechanism of resting membrane potential, initiation and propagation of action potentials and impulse transmission across a synapse.

18. Name and describe functions of the cranial and spinal nerves, plexuses, meninges, CSF and tract pathways.

19. Describe the classification of receptors and their roles.

20. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the eye and ear and explain their functional roles in vision, hearing and equilibrium.

21. Identify and locate the receptors responsible for olfaction and gustation and describe the physiology of smell and taste 22. Integrate the entire set of systems studied to-date.


1. Review basic microscopy techniques including focusing, illumination, contrast, measuring and reviewing parts of the microscope and other microscopy terminology.

2. Predict the effect of concentration differences on movement through semi-permeable membranes.

3. Draw and label the characteristics of the following epithelial tissues: simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, non-keratinized stratified squamous, keratinized stratified squamous, pseudostratified ciliated columnar and transitional.

4. Draw and label the characteristic cell types and features of the following connective tissues: areolar, reticular, elastic, dense irregular, dense regular, adipose, hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage and osseus (bone). Highlight the structural units (i.e. osteon) and all associated coverings where appropriate (i.e. perichondrium, periosteum).

5. Draw and label the characteristic features of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle tissues including the fascia associated with muscle tissue organization.

6. Draw and label the characteristic features of a giant multipolar neuron and associated neuroglia.

7. Identify designated bones and landmarks in the human skeleton.

8. Identify designated skeletal muscles and describe their function.

9. Describe and identify designated CNS structures, blood supply to the brain (cerebral arterial circle) and cranial nerves using an animal brain and/or a model of a human brain.

10. Describe and demonstrate special sense physiology tests such as visual acuity, “blind spot”, nystagmus, hearing, equilibrium, olfaction, taste and cutaneous sensation.

11. Identify on models and/or with a mammal’s eye the three tunics and their respective structures and describe the function of each structure.

12. Identify on models the three regions of the human ear and their respective structures and describe the function of each structure.

Degree Outcomes
Critical, Creative, and Reflective Thinking: Graduates will evaluate, analyze, synthesize, and generate ideas; construct informed, meaningful, and justifiable conclusions; and process feelings, beliefs, biases, strengths, and weaknesses as they relate to their thinking, decisions, and creations.

Natural Sciences: Graduates use the scientific method to analyze natural phenomena and acquire skills to evaluate authenticity of data/information relative to the natural world.

Lecture Contact Hours 40
Lab Contact Hours 40
Clinical Contact Hours 0
Total Contact Hours 80

Potential Methods
A. Class attendance and participation
B. Individual and group projects
C. Tests: Multiple choice, true/false, matching. short answer, fill-in-the-blank, and/or diagram labeling
D. Research paper
E. Lab exercise and report
F. Lab practical exam
G. Instructor observation
H. Oral presentation
I. Group presentation/report
J. Dissection
K. Cadaver study session
L. Computer/internet animations/simulations/activities (EEG, EMG)
M. Field (real) identification
N. Virtual identification
O. Computer-aided instruction
P. Alternative learning modalities
Q. General assessment
R. No formal assessment

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