2023-2024 Pierce College Catalog 
    
    Jul 20, 2024  
2023-2024 Pierce College Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIOL& 242 Human A & P 2 (6 credits)



Distribution Area Fulfilled Natural Sciences with Lab; General Transfer Elective
Prerequisite Completion of BIOL& 241  with 2.0 or better or instructor permission.

Course Description
Second course of a two-quarter study of body structure and related physiology on cellular through system levels. Lecture includes an in-depth study of body organization, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic and immunology, respiratory, digestive and metabolism, excretory, and reproductive systems. Lab includes endocrine histology, cardiovascular system of humans, hematology, urinalysis, immunology, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems using microscopic examination, models and/or representative mammalian specimens.

Course Content
A. The interrelationships between form and function at both the gross and microscopic levels of each of the following:
B. Endocrine system
C. Cardiovascular system
D. Lymphatic/Immune system
E. Respiratory system
F. Digestive system
G. Metabolism
H. Urinary system
I. Fluid/electrolyte and acid/base balance
J. Reproductive system
K. Pre-natal development
L. Laboratory study of: Endocrine system, Hematology (study of blood);Heart and vascular routes; Lymphatic/immune system; Respiratory system; Digestive system and digestive chemistry; Metabolism; Urinary system; Acid/base balance relationships; Reproductive system;

Student Outcomes
LECTURE OUTCOMES

1. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the endocrine system contrasting the functional roles of their hormones in communication, regulation and integration.

2. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the cardiovascular system and explain their functional roles in transport, hemodynamics and blood pressure.

3. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the lymphatic system and explain their functional roles in fluid dynamics and immunity.

4. Describe the physiology of innate and adaptive immunity.

5. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the respiratory system and explain their functional roles in pulmonary ventilation (breathing) and in the processes of external and internal respiration.

6. Describe mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues as well as gas transport in the blood.

7. Identify and describe variables impacting the transport of oxygen on hemoglobin.

8. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the digestive system and explain their functional roles in mechanical and chemical digestive processes, absorption, transportation, elimination, regulation of the digestive processes and nutrition.

9. Summarize reactants and products (especially energy yield) of cellular respiration and indicate how carbohydrates, amino acids and triglycerides are biochemically interconvertible and used for energy.

10. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the urinary system and explain their functional roles in urine formation and blood pressure management.

11. Describe the homeostatic mechanisms that control fluid/electrolyte and acid/base balance.

12. Explain the regulation of volume, composition and distribution of body fluids.

13. Explain the balancing of pH of body fluids.

14. Identify and describe the major gross and microscopic anatomical components of the male and female reproductive systems and explain their functional roles in reproduction. Discuss gamete production, including distinctions between mitosis and meiosis and principles of inheritance. Describe hormonal controls of ovarian cycling.

15. Describe major events of fetal development and the impact of pregnancy on maternal physiology.

LABORATORY OUTCOMES

1. Identify the gross and microscopic anatomy of the major endocrine organs.

2. Identify the components of whole blood via microscopic examination, describe the functional roles of the formed elements of blood, and discuss blood values and counts, specifically: hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC count, WBC differential count, platelet count and interpretation of abnormal values.

3. Identify the ABO blood type and Rh factor from an agglutination test.

4. Identify superficial and deep structures of the heart, including the conduction system, on various heart models, diagrams, and by mammal heart dissection.

5. Describe and demonstrate patterns of blood circulation throughout the human body, including systemic, pulmonary, cerebral, coronary, hepatic portal, and fetal circulations on models, diagrams and/or dissected mammal specimens.

6. Measure blood pressure and discuss its functional interrelationships with pulse pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, peripheral resistance and hemodynamics.

7. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the lymphatic system. Discuss the pattern of lymph circulation and both its encapsulated and non-encapsulated structures.

8. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system and related structures.

9. Measure pulmonary air volumes and capacities using a spirometer.

10. Assess problems dealing with metabolic/respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

11. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the GI tract and the accessory organs of digestion.

12. Discuss and model the catabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

13. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the urinary system.

14. Assess results of a urinalysis, including gross examination, specific gravity, biochemical analysis, and microscopic examination.

15. Identify and describe gross and microscopic anatomy of the male and female reproductive tracts and external genitalia, including reproductive cell development (meiosis, gametogenesis, folliculogenesis).

Degree Outcomes
Critical, Creative, and Reflective Thinking: Graduates will evaluate, analyze, synthesize, and generate ideas; construct informed, meaningful, and justifiable conclusions; and process feelings, beliefs, biases, strengths, and weaknesses as they relate to their thinking, decisions, and creations.

Natural Sciences: Graduates use the scientific method to analyze natural phenomena and acquire skills to evaluate authenticity of data/information relative to the natural world.

Lecture Contact Hours 40
Lab Contact Hours 40
Clinical Contact Hours 0
Total Contact Hours 80

Potential Methods
A. Exams: Combination of multiple choice, matching, completion, definition, short answer and essay questions with illustrations
B. Instructor Observation: Instructor visually assesses either informally or formally (with a checklist) whether the student has successfully achieved the desirable outcome
C. Oral Presentation: Presentation of subject concepts through verbal explanation from students either as individuals or as groups
D. Group Activity: Examination of subject concepts or questions through a formalized group activity requiring active participation of all group members
E. Laboratory Report: Presentation of laboratory experiment results in a brief written form including laboratory objectives and conclusion
F. Laboratory Practicum: Use of student demonstration of techniques and student knowledge of anatomical structures, physiological processes, scientific equipment, and laboratory materials as a means of assessment



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